February 11, 2015
Americans love baseball because it is nine against one - nine men trying to defeat a single person - the intention of the nine is concentrated in their representative, the pitcher making this a one on one spectacle , the pitcher is the assigned killer in single-combat - like medieval knights jousting or two fighter pilots in a dogfight over Korea in 1953.
If the batter hits a home run player “A” wins the battle outright
If it’s a strikeout - player “B” wins outright
If its a base hit - call in the troops to try to “kill” player “A”
To mix the metaphor - cells ( athletic teams) as species
There are many of these skirmishes in a battle ( a single game)
The “war” is played over the course of a single season
Victory in war means that speciation has been achieved
Every World Series winner is a new species - a new peak has been reached in the terms of evolutionary theorist Sewall Wright
1A. Where is each player ( audio cell) born? Where and when does an audio neuron become distinct from other neurons - embryonic stage.
2A. How does each player find his way to the major leagues( audio cortex
3A. Does evolution play out at a taxon above the gene( See: Dawkins) but below the organism( see: Darwin) at the cell level? the organ level?
4A. Does survival of fittest / natural selection / symbiosis occur among cells as occurs among individual animals and plants?
JBT ( Jim Blake Theory) on evolution of human-mammal-vertebrate ear.
- 560 million years ago two tiny, primordial crayfish with their hairy, touch sensitive tails tried to lay eggs in a lethargic camouflaged sea urchin-esque organism.
- Urchin started to devour the little crayfish and had trouble digesting the arthropods so it sent an army of its own symbiotic bacteria to dissolve the shell of the crayfish visitors while keeping them alive and fresh
- It secured the visitors with some epithelial tissue so they couldn't escape and began feeding them a tasty brew of ATP from Urchin tissue mitochondria to keep them happy prisoners.
- Urchin secured the visitors with a web of nerve tissue that created a circuit to Urchin's nerve-knot brain.
- Now whenever the water vibrated from the approach of a predator, Urchin could camouflage itself quicker thus gaining a selective advantage over others of its species. F. due to crayfish tissue cells' closeness to adjacent Urchin cells, the Cray DNA got mixed up with Urchin DNA and it was off to the races-proto ears locked into the Urchin genome. By the time Urchin crawled onto land ten million years and 5 million generations later where it evolved into a proto-mammal, it had clusters of hundreds of these crayfish tail hairs on each side of its bilaterally symmetrical head.
- Lo and behold ! they were sensitive to vibrations in the air. It could see AND hear. Lets call this the Helen Keller moment in our vertebrate evolution.
Metaphor, analogy, metonymy, synecdoche; Neither baseball nor any sport is a metaphor for life or for Darwinian struggle “red in tooth and claw”. Competitors are actually engaged in Darwinian struggle - very little if anything metaphorical about it. winners get girls, vanquished don’t feel as “A” male, women feel better when they win like any other living thing. Outcomes from sport have real-world consequences which leads us to the human ear, the mammalian ear, the vertebrate ear as far down the taxonomic ladder as ears go just before they branch off into touch-sensitive hairs.
Using a baseball metaphor to try to trace audio brain function in humans. Baseball or any sport is not in and of itself a metaphor but sports makes for excellent metaphor-making, synecdotal thinking the part re presents the whole. He’s a good hand. You’ve got her ear for you’ve got her full attention. How do we hear? How does the brain turn vibrations in the air to a sense of having heard snapping twigs, human speech, music, noise or musical noise. The real question is how do we sense anything from any of our five senses but perhaps if we make headway with the ear some insight re the others will ensue.
The mechanics of the human ear are extremely clever but they are graspable in terms of electricity and mechanical engineering - valves open when moved by levers that are moved by changes in air pressure, chemicals flow that change the electrical charge of fluids sending an electrical pulse along a conduit - an audio nerve - so far, so simple. the nerve delivers its impulse to the cortex. The sound gets distributed to 25 neural centers for interpretation the CIA, the NSA the FBI the local cops, the Wife and kids. The sound may have some important survival value input from each. Electrical-chemical signal passes along, among, between neurons from synapse to synapse until it reaches its many destinations in the cortex.
Now what? There must be a library of inherited interpretations for the sound that this impulse gets cross checked against - if its a click, its a poisonous insect - wake up, look for little black thing, if you hear a baby crying, search for food etc. The sound must get processed early in the audio cortical sequence by the amygdala group for reptilian deep response, just after the autonomic muscle jerk launched by the first impact of the sound.
JB Questions and miscellaneous rambling:
- Can RNA read protein from invading organism and work it into genome of host?
- Might a host cell borrow / steal/ use metabolic systems of invader that leave no physical form such as a flagellum, mitochondria or chloroplast? Steal ideas from other organisms and toss any evidence. How many of our current cell processes originated this way, like stolen patents, blueprints or melodies.
- Watching hundreds of cell components: organelles, cytoplasm, proteins, membranes etc through an electron microscope is like watching roadies scramble around for hours before a big rock show ( cell division) Where’s the music? Name the roadies: Kim Payne, Red Dog, Mike Callahan. Identify their array of tasks, some do several different things. Describe the “music” - the chemical reactions. Check the doormen - the protein gatekeepers in the plastid cell membrane. Who has a backstage pass? ( backstage = nucleus) Who knows the “band” - DNA, RNA, mRNA, trNA
- There are four master tropes in language: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony - simultaneous understanding. In synecdoche, the part represents the whole as in “He’s a good hand” “Must get boots on the ground.”
- There are many types of synecdoche:
a.part for whole
- whole for part
- container for contained
- sign for signified
- material for thing made
- cause for effect
- effect for cause
- genus for species
- species for genus
- disease for cure
- microcosm for macrocosm
- Is the following statement true: “Natural Rights are nonsense and Inalienable Natural Rights are nonsense on stilts.” - Jeremy Bentham
- Four types of analogy:
- catachresis ( abuse, semantic misuse, error such as using alibi for excuse or chronic for severe or “I’m ravished” for “I’m famished”
- Is it possible to see a layer in the stratigraphy of The Grand Canyon that marks the onset of a fully oxygenated Earth atmosphere?
- Do humans think better during summer when photosynthesis is at a maximum thus oxygen levels in atmosphere are a bit greater than the 21% of the other nine months?
- Magdalen is the name of one of the 30 colleges that compose Oxford University. It is pronounced “Maudlin” - don’t be screwing this up.
- “The Oxygen Catastrophe” was 2 billion years ago plus or minus a few million. 99% of living things on Earth at this time were poisoned by newly forming atmospheric oxygen. These bacteria were all anaerobic ( and prokaryotic i.e. without a cell nucleus) they breathed other gasses such as methane and CO2.
. Sport is not metaphor, sport IS Darwinian struggle in real time with real results, real outcomes, consequences
We have been in a state of violent, rapid change on all taxonomic levels for the past four billion years. we remark on the rate of change when our lives shift from a quiet corner to a public battleground or get caught in catastrophe. Our bodies are a nexus as violent as any other and as constant. Our brain evolved to filter exigencies of violence, of violent change so that we might get some sleep and est in peace and plan ahead. It’s OK to be filtered from some or even most of this relentless violet change but one mustn’t resist all of it or one is no longer fully human. Sometimes you have to go looking for the action, for kicks. A human life is designed to be a cycle of fighting and resting from birth to death. Most of social life is thinly disguised fighting. You are probably getting your share and on a more relentless schedule than any animal in all evolutionary history. The forty-sixty hour week is insane.
One can examine system of individuals over time finding 1,000s of examples of impressive outcomes that may support a theory while ignoring or failing to find 100 million years and a billion examples of the very thing reported going haywire. For every gainfully employed member of The Screen Actor’s Guild who has achieved even very minor celebrity status there is a valley full of talented anonymous actors.
When everyone is a brand we will have returned to anonymity. the idea of branding is an example of a few enterprising types doing something that becomes effective only because it is rare
- How might an organism steal a metabolic process from an invading or invaded other?
- Today’s cell may appear identical to a 100 million year old cell while having a far more sophisticated metabolism and reproductive process.
- Stealing process not structure that might be seen in fossil record.
- Perhaps symbiotic mergers such as mitochondria, flagellum, chloroplasts are only 10% of all successful symbiotic events
- Gene regulation via symbiotic history. today’s cells are like today’s American culture - a melting pot of countless acquisitions i.e. nothing ever evolves gradually - it simply pops into being and gets stolen.
- Is any part of the human brain or any one of its functions unique among mammals or is the critical mass alone, the greater number of the same types of cells the reason for our “higher” consciousness, our sentience?
- What prevents a neuron from parenting a liver, kidney or muscle cell?
- What are the many roles of neuron histones besides DNA loosening/tightening?
- How do neurons listen, see, smell, taste, feel pain and pleasure?
- When did these various capabilities evolve?
- What were the structures of these neuronal packages at various points in time: 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, 3, 2,1 million years ago? One hundred million years is nothing to sneeze at, not chopped liver or methylated hemoglobin.
- Were these neuronal packages and components ever whole separate organisms?
- When did any symbiosis / parasitism occur?
- Was it parasitism for 100 million years then a gradual change to welcome guest or was the invader useful from the get-go?
- Are capabilities of our five senses stored in our DNA?
- Are there genes for seeing, hearing, smelling or are these capabilities activated by histones, cytoplasmic proteins or other cytoplasmic stuff?
- Histones loosen small portions of the DNA from its incredibly complex coiling- upon coiling so that bp sequences can be read by RNA transferase particular to each cell function.
Imagine a DNA molecule one inch in diameter and 480 miles long if uncoiled, carrying 3,000 genes ( each with dozens to hundreds of variations activated without DNA). a few of the 10s of thousands of histones of this chromosome’s DNA have directed 3 genes to get ready for continuous lifetime of action in Mary’s neuron, an audio cortex neuron in the limbic cortex.
Three histones have given the command for two miles of our 480 mile long DNA molecule to relax in the sun, uncoil, loosen up, reveal itself to the audio neuron’s mRNA
- How did these specific histones, of the thousands on this strand of DNA receive the message to direct the troops( codons) to uncoil?
- What quality of these codons attracts the mRNA for specific protein synthesis, proteins for hearing, processing sound
- reflex action
- dangerous insect - move away or kill it
- process speech
- listen to jungle drums for call to dance or tribal melody
- locate voices in space - in front, behind, high, low
- re-process for fight or flight response
- send message to vocal chords-speech center for audio response
- Is there a different protein or protein group for each one of these audio functions?
- Has there ever been a bacteria species with only the capacity to hear of the five animal senses? to smell? to taste? to see?
- If not then how many cells does a creature need in order to possess these sensory capabilities?
- What was the brainiest proterozoic organism?
- Does fungus have a mind? A mat of mold? A colony of bacteria? archaea?
- Was there a bacterium with sensory neuron number one?
Theory: All life has always been symbiosis. All metabolic process is like bubbles on the surface of a vast glass of champagne popping into the air releasing “ideas” chemical ideas.
Bacteria were like diners at a colossal smorgasbord taking what they needed from the myriad simple processes popping up into the sunlight-carbon-nitrogen-oxygen making combinations. One atom then two. One molecule then two until there are 123 basic structures or 1,200 combining and being integrated into larger molecules.
Once the lipid membrane evolved the cell becomes “the big city” attracting or sending its army to conquer other smaller yet effective combinations of chemical process.
The DNA sequence lounging in the park analogy, say four audio genes, those detecting / processing pitch, timbre, volume and rhythm. There are 19,629 genes present in the DNA of this neuron, 19,625 will be dormant regarding this neuron’s specific function for hearing the four features. Focusing on the gene for pitch, it is active in a small package of 100,000 neurons ( verify)
Note: This neuron DNA molecule is not making hemoglobin, lactase,norepinephrine or lignin it is only making audio protein. It is only expressing features of sound cognition and processing BUT the basic cell functions must all still occur, functions shared by every cell in Mary’s body - the metabolic processes even though this cell is specializing in audio.
- Do a cell’s unique sensory function genes ( sound, sight, smell, touch, taste) occur on one particular chromosome of the 23 pairs?
- Are neural-sensory functions aggregated on one unique chromosome or distributed throughout the 46?
- What chemical shuts down 99% of our genome at every single mature cell?
- What chemical activates 1% of our genome at every mature cell?
- Mary’s 100,000 pitch neurons will have their pitch capabilities turned on
- These neurons are now sensitive to pitch signals arriving via nerve pathways
- Are these signals all electrical?
- Are these signals all chemical?
- Are these signals both electrical and chemical?
- Does pitch perception rely only on the rate of synapse firing or rate and intensity i.e. amps and volts of electrical and or chemical signal?
- What structure inside the pitch neuron receives the first pitch signal?
- How does it “know” what this signal is or what to do with it once received?
- How does this neuron “know” pitch from tone? pitch from shinola?
- Are filtering/enhancement processes involved to boost signal for pitch?
- do all 100,000 pitch neurons receive entire audio signal components - pitch, tone, rhythm etc and sort them out at each of the 100,000 cells?
- Probably a pre-sort neuron complex that distributes a range of say 500 different pitches to cells primed to receive each of 500 pitch tones. Are these cells along the basilar membrane of the cochlea or within the cortex? How many cells for each of 500 distinct pitches? Say 200 ( verify)
- Are the cochlear cells adjacent to the basilar membrane: cells of Claudius, Hensen, Dieters and Boettcher all involved in pitch?
- What is the function of the tunnel of Corti?
- Is there a histone directly assigned to DNA pitch functions
- How are pitch range distinctions doled out in the 500 different pitch sensitive neuron clusters? How is the distinction made? by an amino acid sequence added to the pitch protein coded directly from DNA-RNA?
- How might an amino acid or two distinguish one pitch from another?
To do: Expand role of histones in cell differentiation - focus on neurons - focus on pitch assignment.
- Is there a protein molecule or other cell molecule that can make a distinction between middle C( 262 Hz ) played on a violin and middle C# ( 278 Hz) played on a guitar?
- Do nodules on the neuron coded for 262 Hz make the finer distinctions?
- Might 50 nodules on a single middle C neuron make other distinctions re: timbre, rhythm or are these distinctions made on distinctly different neurons?
- Might there be only a specific neuron for many mid-range pitches with pitch-sorting occurring at several nodules along an axon with each nodule containing the protein add-on for a specific pitch
- Basic question - Do sound sorting functions occur at axon nodules at all?
- Might the spatial sequence of nodules along say 12 inches of axon detect rhythm by their place in the cue for receipt of the electrochemical signal - like jungle drummers relaying a coded message over hundreds of miles only at the speed of light ( electron excitement) thus rhythmic distinctions made. i.e. sound doesn’t all arrive at cell body at once to be processed as rhythm or pitch
- Might pitch be distinguished by location of receipt of signal at protein-charged nodular receptors along axon? Low frequency sound has a signal rate of reception as do all frequencies that would arrive at nodules at different times over a few femtoseconds.
THE SPORT-BASEBALL HEURISTIC:
Each cell type is a different sport:
kidney ….. rowing
cartilage….. auto racing
Basic cell functions are shared by all different sports - metabolic process, reproduction
Baseball is analogous to the Brain:
Harmony processed by The American League
Pitch processed by The National League-Central
Rhythm and volume by National League East and West respectively
Each of the 30 professional baseball teams is a different type of brain cell
The higher frequency ( UHF, VHF, HF) audio neurons are the Chicago Cubs
There are ten interconnected audio functions - nine while fielding plus batting
The shortstop is the audio neuron for medium frequency: 3MHz - 300 KHz. The whole team works together to fully process any sensory input from any of the five senses but when the sense is Medium Frequency sound, the shortstop gets the incoming info first. Is it romantic music or the snapping twigs of a rapidly approaching lion? Let’s get this sorted out…….in a hurry.
Now: Each player has a history in a specific game, on his team, in the profession, in the sport, in his life since birth and his family genealogy back through Lucy(3 MYA), Ardi(4.5 MYA), (MYA is Million Years Ago) Chimps, lemurs and land rats(400 MYA), fish, sea squirt(700 MYA),sponge, bacterial mat,free floating bacterium(2,000 MYA i.e. 2 billionMYA), free-floating RNA, Free-floating nucleotides, carbon, hydrogen, helium, sulphur atoms(4.5BYA), free electrons, quarks, pi-mesons ad infinitum to big bang(13.5BYA). for now he’s a shortstop on the brain team listening for any and all things audio.
- Are nodules on audi axons evenly spaced anywhere? or spaced in any pattern related to electromagnetic spectrum?
- How does a neuron hear? listen?
- Synecdoche - the part represents the whole. the pitcher represents the team
- A part signifying the whole requires an imaginative leap it is not direct like the link of the pitcher to his eight teammates
- does baseball represent the U.S. or does it signify the U.S.? or neither?
- Does baseball represent Darwinian “bloody tooth and claw” or des baseball signify Darwinian “bloody in tooth and claw”?
- Is baseball an actual, direct “red in tooth and claw event ( many events per season) with real life ( natural) results to be tallied such as mate selection, genes passed on to next generation, species sorted, species going extinct?
Is baseball a three level phenomenon? It does select genes -players meet mates. teams are synecdochal for their cities: “Pittsburgh beat Chicago” Hey! it was only their respective baseball teams not the whole damn city!
- Does an audi neuron function on more than one level? It must
- How does a protein hear?
- Can audio neurons detect gamma, x ray, UV, NIR, MIR, FIR, EHF, SHF, UHF, VHF, VLF, SLF, ELF radiation? UV radiation? visible light waves?
- A wave is a wave is a wave. See: transduction: sound pressure into electrical impulse carried along auditory nerve fibers. Impedance matching - cochlea is a frequency analyzer.
- How many fibers in an audi nerve bundle?
- Are different pitches carried by dedicated fibers?
- Potassium ion concentration in perilymph at scala tympani determines what? pitch and volume?
JBT - Perhaps with loud rock and roll, the bass and drum sound avoids the ear for the most part and goes directly to the gut, heart, adrenal gland then to the audio processing neural cortex( hippocampus, BA41, BA42, BA22. review ability of those born deaf to hear any aspect of loud rock.
OK reader - take a break for a day or two - this could get tedious - sorry - doesn’t really fit into a second essay.
- Are astrocytes and or oligodendrocytes exclusively involved in sound perception? If so, which aspects of sound: pitch, timbre, location, rate of approach?
- Are memories of music and brain-worms from annoying songs processed at the same zone of the cortex?
JBT - All features of all plants and animals are from symbiosis or parasitism at some point in the organism’s recent to very deep origin, none are from mutation / natural selection. Individual and paired bacteria of 10 million different species contained all future cell types: epithelial, liver, heart, brain, muscle, bone, blood. there once existed a microbial tag-team for every cell process and type, a smorgasbord of life-tools waiting for merging, mating, complexifying protists.
Lynn Margulis and Dorion Sagan propose three obvious and relatively large organelles as symbionts, ignoring 3,000 30,000 3 million symbiotic chemical processes aquired over eons from methane sniffing primordial oozers to our present shebang of cell biochemistry in all organisms.
- Histone-DNA @ audio neuron clusters at cochlea and various zones of audio processing at cortex
- Cortical Network Nodes (CNN) - JB neologistical naming system for audio-cortical geography ( erase if this has already been done - don’t want to confuse the matter.
ZOC…..Zone Of Cooper
ZOA…..Zone Of Amanopour
BOB…..Band Of Banfield
ZoCU….Zone Of Cuomo
COCu...Curve Of Curnow
FOEl….Field Of Elam
GOGa...Granules Of Ganam
NoNew...Nodes Of Newt
GOGa...Granules Of Garani
see notes for 20 more
- Is there a central fresh ( new) neuron dispatch zone( at hippocampus or elsewhere) where a protein-esque tag with address is attached, indicating molecule route-destination? Call it a MTRD ( Molecular Tag: Route and Destination) a JB neologism ( to be erased if this already exists)
- Perhaps a zone at hippocampus that can identify 200 or 2,000 cortical destinations for new neuron? Like a logistics warehouse in tennessee putting a bar code sticker on a package that codes for destination.
- Neural stem cell destination code n a 3 amino acid tag, like putting a tag on a t-shirt of a kid at summer camp
- The summercampus - The zone at hippocampus where MTRD is synthesized and attached to neuron progenitor - the future neuron for detection of middle-C
- Note: New neurons follow radial ganglia, travelling via chemical signal adhesion molecules at the surface of the neuron. Only ⅓ reach destination, others die? or get re-routed for purpose other than that intended?
- Do genes at nuclear DNA code for neuron migration or is it done by “sub-genes” - tacked on info from cortical dspatch zone.
- Does the spinal cord have the ability to remember?
- Does the spinal cord have any sensory processing capability”
- Might you hear something through your lower back?
- Let’s say a hair cell replacement
A Scenario for audio cell replacement:
- Hair cell at cochlea for detection of middle-C must be replaced - stem cell to the rescue
- Signal to hippocampus from occipital BA-22 that it no longer receives signals at 262 Hz from cochlear hair cell - call it “Midsey”
- Hippocampus selects a stem cell and sends it to the hippocampus logistics and distribution center to receive its MTRD
- Precursor to new hair cell for detection of midde-C is on its way
- Send off procedure at BA-22 for long, winding trip up to cochlea ( hey ! it’s not all the way to a kidney!
- New cell arrives at cochlea. How does it know from all of the other specialized tone-sensitive hair cells arrayed along the basilar membrane where to stand in this meta-choir that receives instead of sends audio information.
- Stochastic resonance - locate previous use of word in essay - google docs wont do it like MS word does.
- Is mammal audio organ system inherited from arthropods? from their touch sensitive hair cells, filiform hairs at cerci?
- Can mammal eyelashes detect electromagnetic radiation at any frequency? especially in audible ones?
- How is touch analogous to sound?
- Is there a kinesthetic link between touch and sound?
- How does cannabis effect audio neurotransmitters?
- Why do so many musicans believe they perform better with weed?
- Sound and touch are evolutionarily analogous: the membrane covered hair pit that a spider uses to sense movement is very similar to the membrane-audio hair of the human ear.
- Is tinnitus at the ears or the brain only - cochlear or cortex?
A Creepy Ghost Story:
If neurons can live indefinitely and their age is only limited by the age of the body then dead people whose brains were not poisoned by embalming fluid or incinerated may still be lying in their coffins wide awake after 300 years. This might explain ghosts or light balls of neural energy rising from grave and floating around coalescing a few air molecules to make an “appearance” and returning intermittently for a recharge from living brain.
energy for all of this post-vivo activity is drawn from the mitochondria of vast colonies of bacteria that decompose organic matter - new symbionts ( R U laughing yet?) forever! these supposed brain decomposers become guardians in the ground for the still-living cortex. OK, dad’s dead - buried - bacteria converge to do away with him - turn him into CO2 and methane - to decompose his body but….those trying to digest dad’s brain form a compact with the still functioning ( though resting) mitochondria ( we know they are primordial bacteria - brothers of the decomposers) to preserve dad’s brain function - dad, though presumed “dead” still lives inside his coffin as trillions of bacterial mitochondria take instruction to supply ATP for dad’s neurons, astrocytes and dendrocytes. Cue: Theremin - solarize.
- Does the audio signal, as it arrives in the audio processing part of the cortex enter as a sine wave or is it some other code?
- When did hearing evolve on Earth?
- Does the audio cortex recognize middle-C ( or any audible tone) for its unique quality or only as an electro-chemical impulse relative to other tones?
- If a baby was born hearing only middle-C for thirty days and no other tones or voices or sounds could it then identify middle-C from all other tones that would now be new to it at day 31?
- Does audio signal get reviewed by the amygdala? If so, in what order re: all other audio processing nodes?
A slant on symbiosis:
Imagining Lynn Margolis’ version of first effective symbiosis - say the entry of a mitochondrion-like bacteria into a larger host that is more protected from poisonous oxygen in atmosphere. Call mitochondrial bacteria “Mitoch”. The Margulis scenario has Mitoch entering the host through its membrane to take up residence, after a while the host builds a membrane around its DNA to create the very first eukaryotic cell ( one with a nucleus). The host and its new energy supply “Mitoch” evolve happily ever after, giving rise to millions of new species of plants and animals all of whose cells contain mitochondria as energy source.
- Why would host ever have to build a membrane for its DNA. It survived abd thrived for 2 billion years with free-floating DNA?
- How soon after Mitoch residence did host develop a nuclear membrane?
- Did host need to spearate its DNA from Mitoch?
- Was host DNA or Mitoch DNA too promiscuous with one another?
- Nuclear membrane develops to protect host DNA from toxic oxygen
- Margulis says little about how this new nuclear membrane evolved. It is the distinguishing characteristic of entire kingdoms of organisms.
- Host is anerobic, Mitoch uses oxygen in its metabolism
- Seems like if host is anerobic it can never thrive in atmo of increasing oxygen with or without Mitoch
- Does this grand new invention, the nuclear membrane, just coalesce out of cytoplasmic spare parts? I don’t think so.
- 2/11/15 4:45pm