March 22, 2015 “The Biogenetic Law is a theory of development and evolution proposed by Ernst Haeckel in Germany in 1866. It is one of several recapitulation theories which posit that the stages of development for an animal embryo are the same as other, less complex animals' adult stages or forms.The Biogenetic Law, commonly stated as ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, theorizes that the stages an animal embryo undergoes during development are a chronological replay of that species' past evolutionary forms.”
Stasis IS data
Rejection IS selection / creation
Less may or may not be MORE
Species level selection carried out via the mechanism of art critic
The art critic visits bohemian art ghetto and selects only one of 1,000 painters to write about, to celebrate and in so doing redirects the course of art history. Each of the 1,000 painters is creative, they are all testing their individual strength in the face of their environment using inborn and acquired gifts / skill every day and night as Charles Darwin would expect in their struggle for survival but it is this external force of the influential art critic at his/her higher taxonomic level who is doing the culling, the selecting. It ain’t natural.
- At what point is a fertilized egg capable of receiving new information from its environment?
- Does a mother’s mood affect the DNA or other polypeptides in her ova. Would her teenage depression affect her germ cell DNA? Would her depression during pregnancy affect the DNA of the zygote-blastula-fetus? Is a mother’s depression heritable by her baby?
- What array of chemo-electrical signals does a neuron receive independent of its specific neurologic function? The basic functional menu for each of two types of cells: a. Those that reproduce until death of individual or late years b. Those cells that get reproductively switched off, i.e. do not reproduce i.e. no new cells during all of post adolescent years- neocortical neurons.
- JB idea - rename “junk DNA” to “Tun DNA” Tun DNA is used at neurons to store memories / knowledge using standard epigenetic histone modification pathways: methylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, ribosylation, ubiquitination, citrullination, phosphorylation, etc.
- Re: golgi apparatus - How is delivery address for vesicle contents exiting the trans face of the golgi apparatus “read” through a translucent or opaque vesicle membrane? Is it read from the surface of the membrane? Is the address label read by chemical or electrical means?
- Is there any significance to where a protein-packed vesicle exits the golgi?
- Is there any significance to when a protein-packed vesicle exits the golgi i.e. its elapsed time of final assembly and logistical activity within the golgi apparatus?
- Do different proteins under production at a single golgi exit in different ways?
- Do several different proteins get manufactured at single specific golgis? Say one for GABA, a different golgi apparatus for glutamate logistics and one each for cell regulatory functions re: glycolysis, CO2 removal?
- What causes RER ( rough endoplasmic reticulum) to rotate slowly around the centroid of the cell nucleus?
- Does the movement of the RER reverse direction in the southern hemisphere? does this affect genetic expression re: more marsupials? or poisonous snakes?
- Does the slow rotation of the RER play a role in the distribution of ribosomes throughout the 360 x 360 x 360 degree sphere of influence in the cytoplasm? as it delivers new ribosomes throughout the X-Y-Z axis of the soma?
- What mechanism controls the velocity of the RER layered sphere surrounding the nucleus?
- If there is one protein for each one of 500 different pitch levels in the cochlear membrane of the inner ear, are these proteins all made in the same cells i.e. can one cochlear cell manufacture all 500 different pitch proteins or are different ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum produced in separate arrays of cochlear cells? Is there one ribosome type for each of these 500 different proteins? or does a single ribosome type create all of the different proteins?
- Golgi apparati get broken down into hundreds of vesicles at mitosis and then reassemble into edgerton layers after cell division is complete. Do golgis still perform any protein packaging function when in their dispersed phase? For instance supplying tubulin for microtubule fabrication at metaphase / anaphase?
- Upon reaching maturity do the chromosomes in a neuron break down into chromatin and remain in this condition for forty more years, or 20 or 60 years with half of them unravelled and half still wound tight around their histones?
- What is the percentage of DNA that a neocortical neuron must unravel to perform its lifetime functions? There appears to be a lot of dormant DNA in a specialized nerve cell - say at olfactory bulb or cochlear membrane.
- Experiment: Exchange DNA in a mature neuron from a fifty year old human into both sperm and egg. Inspect for lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics in offspring.
- Rejection is creation - organism failures in their environment fuel natural selection
- JB neologism: Kodalithic: All tonal variation is abstracted to black and white from the 50% gray tone - half to white, half to black.
- Once a neuron synaptic receptor becomes filled do neurotransmitters get backed up at the transmitting nerve end. Do neurotransmitters crowd together like a pushy crowd at a bus stop at the synapse and cause problems due to overload? Vacuoles fail to evacuate fast enough
- Has the entire range of dendrite tip geometry / topology been catalogued? i.e. pointed, cupped, hemispherical, donut, etc. What are the tip geometry distribution ratios among our one trillion dendrites?
- How are different signal processing functions related to dendrite tip geometry?
- WTF are dreams? Dreaming dissolves barriers between all knowledge of the physical world and its inhabitants and all behavior and re-assembles it into new stories about people you have never seen in places you have never been, architecture styles from another world, all rendered in 100% veracity of form and movement, voice and gesture as well as storyline, plot development, outcome.
- Dreams reconstruct reality creating an alternate reality for ten minutes to an hour - why? To keep neurons in shape, warmed-up, ready to act-react to next day’s challenges or middle of the night challenges from midnight marauders i.e. many neurons are locked and loaded at all times.
- Dreas prevent the collapse of one’s world picture into brain soup during sleep - heart beats 24/7/365 brain must be alert 24/7/365
- “I dream therefore I still am”- JB
- In the absence of dreams, neurons break down causing schizophrenia, nervous breakdown, loss of self in daytime.
- Do GABA containing vesicles travel from soma to end of axon via microtubules? or do they need more room and flow toward end in space between microtubules and axon membrane?
- Why bother with inhibitory charge at presynaptic zone? Why not simply ignore, leave it alone i.e. no input?
- Do dendrites of different types of brain cells transmit using different action potentials?
- Could a single neuron respond to ten different action potentials and sort out the sources for each? How about for three or three hundred?
- What would be the mechanism for such sorting? is there a gene for it?
- Does increased rate of photoreceptor electrochemical events ( isomerization) not only stimulate retina but also trigger adrenaline, oxytocin or some other excitatory neurotransmitter at a region of the brain remote from visual cortex? say at the amygdala. Question is raised re: sexiness of impressionist paintings and their vast popularity - is something at work other than typical eye-brain connections at work during most painting observation?
- If a single neuron can last for forty or fifty years what components of the cell get replaced and when? All components all the time? Stasis at neurons may be a misreading, a misunderstanding.
- All cells in the human body get turned over every 7 years. does this include neurons? What does it mean or matter that there are no new neurons after age 18 if every one of 10 billion of them gets replaced in its entirety on a regular basis until death.
- How do memories get replicated in new neurons or other brain cells?
- Is a memory a base pair array / sequences or some chemical attached to a codon(s)?
- Does the membrane temperature of a dividing cell rise higher than normal in order to affect the lipid bilayer of the cell outer membrane? The nuclear membrane? the mitochondrial membrane? vacuole membrane?
- Does a cell ‘take out the trash” i.e. empty all vacuoles containing cell impurities, by-products, decommissioned protein prior to mitosis?
- RE: culture - We gather around the campfire and each of us adds a small chunk of stew stuff to the steaming pot. It all adds up. No need to rank any of it. Remember to stir up the old stuff at the bottom of this yeasty gumbo once in awhile to review and re-use grandmother’s old swerve on what you might imagine is a new idea.
- Do dendrites or axon terminals ever penetrate the membranes of neighboring neurons to increased, more direct effect? or might this penetration be an illness - weak cell wall, penetration, misfiring, haywire at neural neighborhood?
- DNA doesn’t grow - it multiplies. The molecule is the same essential scale whether in a bacterium or a blue whale.
- Termites, once grown do not grow any further - they multiply - they diversify their colonial roles.
- DNA size/amount is approximately constant through long expanses of geological time. At one time in primordia ( JB neologism for billion(s) of years ago) DNA molecule was smaller but the organism was simpler i.e. human was a proto-rat, a fish, a sponge, a bacteria colony, a free-floating protist, a mass of free-floating polypeptide DNA, simply RNA, lipid sheets, blastulae of fat, carbon atoms, quarks.
- At what point in a lifetime do most useful mutations occur? Are they life-phase specific?
- Do mutations that might help fetal growth occur while a fetus or when we are eighteen or twenty eight?
- Are all potentially beneficial mutations simply down the drain if they occur after age 18-40?
- Couldn’t any histone modification pathway - HMP ( JB neologism)( methylation, phosphorylation etc.) initiate a heritable mutation?
- What is the site of most histone modification? At nucleus? At RER? At Mitochondria?
- Since mitochondria are involved in vital cell energy production perhaps it has more HMPs than nucleus?
- Isn’t RER really an integral part of the nucleus given how pores at RER and nuclear membrane must interact, line up, coordinate? RER as a very thick nuclear membranous enclosure?
- Is gestation a natural realm for natural selection to play out?
- Organism as spandrel (unavoidable, inherent, leftover stuff - see: Stephen Jay Gould) that results from the evolution of the all-important, vital, central DNA molecule. Evolution is all about the DNA molecule not the organism. Organisms come and go, DNA has been around since life’s inception. DNA is life!. All plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea and viruses are just so much interchangeable, frangible, fuzzy stuff compared to this gooey indestructible, self-serving core of all life - the DNA molecule.
“The difference between bacteria and protists is founded on the complexity of a cell's organization. The cellular organization of bacteria is particularly simple -they do not have membranes binding their nuclear material- and for this reason they are also named prokaryotes ("before-nucleus"). The cellular organization of protists is more complex -they have a membrane-bound nucleus (and other organelles distinct from the cytoplasm)- and they are therefore called eukaryotes ("true-nucleus"). Animals, plants and fungi, being derived from protists, are also eukaryotes.” - Yahoo Question site
- DNA sends out its avant garde: probes, hairs, feelers, fingers; armies of organisms into the sunlight across the surface of the Earth, above and below the earth and oceans in order to reduce the entropic gradient. Genomic variety is no more than the mix n’ match of superficial addenda to the core DNA - Life is a vast array of experiments each in its own way, investigating options for improved entropy.
- Considering protein that governs metabolic timing. Is there a single master gene that gives rise to many signal variants generated by epigenetic activity- HMPs - phosphorylation etc., or are there 100 genes that code for metabolic timing - “Do it now!” “Do it later!” “Do it again and again!”
- Does each organ and each gland have its own specific gene (s) for metabolic regulation or does each of the different types of tissue produce its own specific array of metabolic regulators at the liver-kidneys-heart-brain-adrenal gland-testes, bone marrow from a master gene or master on-switch protein shared by all with organ-specific chemistry initiated by epigenetic events peculiar to each organ?
- How / when did this aster gene evolve? Is it conserved throughout the entire animal kingdom, all living things? What are sponge homologs to kidney metabolites? Are they the same metabolic pathways? Krebs cycle etc.
- Are kidney metabolic pathways still susceptible to mutation / improvement by natural selection or symbiosis? Does natural selection even work at this level at this time?
- How would tiny improvements in the Krebs Cycle be manifest in a tiger attack on a water buffalo or during an encounter with another tiger during mating season? i.e. How would such fine chemical procedural distinctions even show up on tiger radar for selection or rejection-extinction amid so much more dramatic activity with such a multitude of variables at larger scales of causality. Wouldn’t minor evolutionary adjustments to ATP metabolism get lost in the shuffle?
- Oh! this generation of tigers has the abc mutation that accelerates the conversion of pyruvate to acetylCo- A, that pyruvate decarboxylation is delayed now for five nanoseconds or the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase is early to the Krebs party, the two electrons that are removed from pyruvate don’t make their exit as soon.
- Are these micro-nano mutations going to affect whether a river dries up and no zebras show up to be eaten or grass is more rigid thus slowing attack launch of tiger.
- There are 10,000 factors involved in whether or not the tiger eats on time. There must be some other evolutionary mechanism at work doing the “selection” even if epochal timescales are at work. This selection must be at non-individual levels of the taxonomy i.e species- clade or gene-quantum.
- Is the Krebs cycle at work in a 5 day old fetus? 5 week? 5 months?
- Which gene codes for the Krebs cycle?
- Mandelbrotian causality of taxonomic hierarchical realms of selection. How many animal characteristics have been selected against prior to organism birth? 90%, 5%, 99.99%? Look at birth as Sewal Wrightian speciation with gestation as the “valley” phase and birth-subsequent life as the plateau.
- The active zone of natural selection is tertiary i.e. minor - see: Darwin's finch beaks, domestic animal breeds, corn kernel coloration - All key components and their processes are ferociously conserved i.e. not in play for any evolutionary forces. Nature doesn’t mess with a good thing.
- JB neologism: Genota: The combined genomes of all things that ever lived; extinct genota referred to as E-genota, present day living things plant, animal, bacteria, virus, archaea, fungi referred to are P-genota or Present Genota.
- does the fetus of an insect or reptile appear to recapitulate its phylogeny as appears to happen in mammals?
- Tree analogy: Big old Tree is conserved DNA - leaves occurring and dying annually are organisms.
- How might a valuable mutation become shared by all living things in 2015?.
- How long would it take for a new metabolic epicycle that provides a 2% increase in ATP efficiency to work its way from gorillas in which the mutation occurred down and up to all animals and plants i.e. to become useful and then conserved in the genes of ten million species? Is this even possible? for useful traits to trickle up, down and sideways?
- Has nature shut the door on any further kingdom-wide improvements on metabolic process?
- Would it be a virus’s job or a bacteria’s job to read this good metabolic news at the gorilla mutation and copy it - spread it among 1,000,000 species around the world?
- It would be interesting if this metabolic breakthrough worked great for 75 % of species of plant and animal and wiped out the rest as they suffered disease not benefit.
- what if genes at retinal cells began to switch on digestive genes that are normally switched on in the stomach and eyes gets digested? Has this ever happened? Genetic mis-reading.
- Where is the nucleus in a sperm cell? Where is the RER? does the sperm cell manufacture protein on its journey to the egg? or additional mitochondria for swimming energy? There must be a lot of mitochondria at sperm.
- Perhaps the colors on butterfly wings are spandrel effects of totally unrelated neuronal signalling.
- Neuron DNA phosphorylation stimulated by butterfly response to humidity also affects the expression of the chitin chemistry of wings, reorienting crystals at the wing in geometric zones / patterns to create color differences none of this related to mating. Who knows?
- 80. What creates a permanent circuit in the brain? what makes a path well worn? made stronger?
- What do Malcolm gladwell’s 10,000 hours of practice physically change in the brain cells of the neocortex and other brain locations?
- To do: Explore reverberation across an entire neuronal population resulting from the clustered action potential firing i.e. waves of effect as they diminish moving away from the neuronal source.
. “Memory is the dynamic state of the brain circuit.” Dr. David Tank - Princeton
Question: What is “Gametic Embryology”?
Answer: I still don’t know….but searching for a meaning launched a few questions.